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Primary bone cancers include osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. They account for less than 1% of diagnosed cancers each year and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnosis is challenging because of late patient presentation, nonspecific symptoms that mimic common musculoskeletal injuries, and low suspicion by physicians. Plain radiography is the preferred diagnostic test. Radiographic suspicion of a bone malignancy should prompt quick referral to a cancer center for multidisciplinary care. Osteosarcoma, the most common bone cancer, most often occurs in children and adolescents. It typically develops in the metaphysis of long bones, specifically the distal femur, proximal tibia, and proximal humerus. Metastasis to the lungs is common. Use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy, in combination with surgery, has improved survival rates to nearly 80% for patients with localized disease, and 90% to 95% of patients do not require limb amputation. Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer and is similar to osteosarcoma in terms of presenting symptoms, age at occurrence, and treatment. Prognosis for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma depends on the presence of metastasis, which lowers the five-year survival rate to 20% to 30%. Chondrosarcoma is the rarest bone cancer, primarily affecting adults older than 40 years. Survival rates are higher because most of these tumors are low-grade lesions.
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Name: American family physician
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An internationally recognized set of published rules used for evaluation of cancer treatment that define when tumors found in cancer patients improve, worsen, or remain stable during treatment. These criteria are based specifically on the response of the tumor(s) to treatment, and not on the overall health status of the patient resulting from treatment.
A deoxycytidine derivative and fluorouracil PRODRUG that is used as an ANTINEOPLASTIC ANTIMETABOLITE in the treatment of COLON CANCER; BREAST CANCER and GASTRIC CANCER.
A rare, benign rheumatologic disorder or syndrome characterized by hyperostosis and soft tissue ossification between the clavicles and the anterior part of the upper ribs. It is often associated with the dermatologic disorder palmoplantar pustulosis, particularly in Japan. Careful diagnosis is required to distinguish it from psoriatic arthritis, OSTEITIS DEFORMANS, and other diseases. Spondylitis of pustulosis palmaris et plantaris is one of the possible causes; also, evidence suggests one origin may be bone infection. Bone imaging is especially useful for diagnosis. It was originally described by Sonozaki in 1974.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Irradiation of one half or both halves of the body in the treatment of disseminated cancer or widespread metastases. It is used to treat diffuse metastases in one session as opposed to multiple fields over an extended period. The more frequent treatment modalities are upper hemibody irradiation (UHBI) or lower hemibody irradiation (LHBI). Less common is mid-body irradiation (MBI). In the treatment of both halves of the body sequentially, hemibody irradiation permits radiotherapy of the whole body with larger doses of radiation than could be accomplished with WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION. It is sometimes called "systemic" hemibody irradiation with reference to its use in widespread cancer or metastases. (P. Rubin et al. Cancer, Vol 55, p2210, 1985)
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