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Administration of influenza vaccines via the respiratory tract has potential benefits over conventional parenteral administration, inducing immunity directly at the site of influenza exposure as well as being needle free. In this study, we investigated the suitability of Advax™, a stable particulate polymorph of inulin, also referred to as delta inulin, as a mucosal adjuvant for whole inactivated influenza vaccine (WIV) administered either as a liquid or dry powder formulation. Spray freeze-drying produced Advax-adjuvanted WIV powder particles in a size range (1-5 μm) suitable for inhalation. The physical and biological characteristics of both WIV and Advax remained unaltered both by admixing WIV with Advax and by spray freeze drying. Upon intranasal or pulmonary immunization, both liquid and dry powder formulations containing Advax induced significantly higher systemic, mucosal and cellular immune responses than non-adjuvanted WIV formulations. Furthermore, pulmonary immunization with Advax-adjuvanted WIV led to robust memory B cell responses along with an increase of lung localization factors i.e. CXCR3, CD69, and CD103. A less pronounced but still positive effect of Advax was seen on memory T cell responses. In contrast to animals immunized with WIV alone, all animals pulmonary immunized with a single dose of Advax-adjuvanted WIV were fully protected with no visible clinical symptoms against a lethal dose of influenza virus. These data confirm that Advax is a potent mucosal adjuvant that boosts vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses both in the lung and systemically with major positive effects on B-cell memory and complete protection against live virus. Hence, respiratory tract immunization, particularly via the lungs, with Advax-adjuvanted WIV formulation as a liquid or dry powder is a promising alternative to parenteral influenza vaccination.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
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Group activities directed against VACCINATION.
Rate of VACCINATION as defined by GEOGRAPHY and or DEMOGRAPHY.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Refusal to receive VACCINATION.
Influenza or 'flu' is a respiratory illness associated with infection by influenza virus. Symptoms frequently include headache, fever, cough, sore throat, aching muscles and joints. There is a wide spectrum of severity of illness ranging from min...
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...