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Standard normal statistics, chi-squared statistics, Student's t statistics and F statistics are used to map quantitative trait nucleotides for both small and large sample sizes. In genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the statistical distributions depend on both genetic effects and SNPs but are independent of SNPs under the null hypothesis of no genetic effects. Therefore, hypothesis testing when a nuisance parameter is present only under the alternative was introduced to quickly approximate the critical thresholds of these test statistics for GWASs. When only the statistical probabilities are available for high-throughput SNPs, the approximate critical thresholds can be estimated with chi-squared statistics, formulated by statistical probabilities with a degree of freedom of two. High similarities in the critical thresholds between the accurate and approximate estimations were demonstrated by extensive simulations and real data analysis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Briefings in bioinformatics
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An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...