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Identifying HIV-1-associated B cell defects and responses to activation may direct interventions to circumvent their impaired antibody responses to infection and vaccines. Among 34 viremic HIV-1-infected and 20 seronegative control adults, we measured baseline frequencies and activation of B and T cell subsets, expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), potential determinants of B cell activation in vivo and B and T cell responses in vitro. At baseline, HIV-1 infection was associated with increased IgM memory and decreased anergic cell frequencies, as well as increased activation in all 10 B cell subsets compared with controls. HIV-1 status, T activation, and BAFF were significant potential drivers of B cell activation. Despite high baseline activation among HIV-1-infected subjects, stimulation in vitro with combined surrogates for antigen (anti-IgM), cognate (CD40 ligand) and soluble T cell factors (IL-4) elicited comparable B cell activation, transitions from naïve to class-switched memory cells and AID expression in both groups. In summary, viremic HIV-1 infection perturbs circulating B cell subsets and activation at each stage of B cell maturation. However, that appropriate stimulation of B cells elicits effective activation and maturation provides impetus for advancing vaccine development to prevent secondary infections by circumventing early B cell defects.
This article was published in the following journal.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia is described as persistent HCV RNA among HCV exposed individuals. HCV viremic rate is defined as the proportion of anti-HCV positive and HCV RNA positive individuals to...
HIV-1 transmission is usually initiated by a single viral strain called transmitted/ founder (T/F) virus. In in vitro models, HIV-1 can efficiently spread via cell-free and virological synapse (VS)-me...
Antigen-specific immunity conferred by T lymphocytes is a result of complex molecular interactions at the immunological synapse. A variety of biomimetic approaches have been devised to artificially in...
Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by Leishmania parasites is critical for the outcome of leishmaniasis, a disease that affects millions of people worldwide. We investigate the mechanisms involved i...
The study of in vitro infections is essential to evaluate distinct aspects of Leishmania biology and also invaluable for more meaningful in vitro screening of promising chemical entities. Macrophage-l...
Activation of mast cells in the immune system is known to cause allergic reactions sometimes with severe systemic symptoms. The investigators have recently developed a blood-based mast cel...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental treatment, known as in vitro activation (IVA) of dormant ovarian follicles, for infertility in women diagnosed...
To evaluate the degree and sequence of immunologic enhancement and the cellular resistance to certain infections after a single dose of atvogen (ampligen). In addition, the relationship be...
Immunoprophylaxis with two hepatitis B vaccinations following the hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg) and hepatitis B vaccine at birth is largely effective in protecting infants from hepati...
To determine the safety and tolerance of methotrexate in HIV-infected patients. To determine the dose effective in modulating key markers of immune activation. To determine a dose suitable...
A B7 antigen subtype that inhibits the costimulation of T-cell activation, proliferation, cytokine production and development of cytotoxicity. The over expression of this protein in a variety of tumor cell types suggests its role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Type of programmed cell death associated with infection by intracellular pathogens. It is characterized by INFLAMMASOME formation; activation of CASPASE 1; and CYTOKINES mediated inflammation.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activa
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
AIDS and HIV
AIDS; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV; Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infection causes AIDS. HIV infection also causes the production of anti-HIV antibodies, which forms the test for HIV in patients. People who have the HIV antibodies are ...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...