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Over the past 30 years, hypoglossal nerve stimulation has moved through a development pathway to become a viable treatment modality for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Initial pilot studies in animals and humans laid the conceptual foundation for this approach, leading to the development of fully implantable stimulating systems for therapeutic purposes. These devices were then demonstrated to be both safe and efficacious in feasibility studies. One such closed-loop stimulating device was found effective in treating a limited spectrum of apneic patients and is currently FDA-approved for this purpose. Another open-loop stimulating system is currently being rigorously tested in a pivotal trial. Collectively, clinical trials of hypoglossal stimulating systems have yielded important insights that can help optimize therapeutic responses to hypoglossal nerve stimulation. These insights include specific patient selection criteria and methods for delivering stimulation to specific portions of the hypoglossal nerve and/or genioglossus muscle. New approaches for activating efferent and afferent motor pathways are currently in early-stage laboratory development and hold some long-term promise as a novel therapy.
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In pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the relationship between rapid eye movement sleep and upper airway collapse, and between sleep position and airway dimensions are well known. However, the i...
Primary treatment of obstructive sleep apnea can be accompanied by a persistence of excessive sleepiness despite adherence. Furthermore, effectiveness of sleep apnea treatment is limited by poor adher...
Although mixed sleep apnea (MSA) is one of the three types of sleep apnea, it is not considered a separate disease entity. It is generally seen as a part of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (...
Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation and affects at least 20% of individuals after the age of 65. There is accumulating evidence that obstructive sleep apnea may...
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway collapse during sleep and is highly prevalent in the general population. The nasopharyngeal air...
Obstructive Sleep Apnea may cause dizziness or vertigo through hypoxia of the vestibular nuclei in the brain. Treating sleep apnea may improve dizziness or vertigo.
Obstructive sleep apnea is often associated with microarousals and a stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. The knowledge of this autonomic activation may help understanding the in...
The purpose of this post-market observational study is to assess the effectiveness and patient perception of benefit of the ReVENT Sleep Apnea System in patients diagnosed with Obstructive...
Sleep apnea is common among veterans with cerebrovascular disease (stroke or transient ischemic attack [TIA]), leads to hypertension, and is associated with recurrent stroke and death. Alt...
The objective of the study is to confirm the safety and efficacy in patients utilizing the aura6000 System for the treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA).
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
Sleep disorders disrupt sleep during the night, or cause sleepiness during the day, caused by physiological or psychological factors. The common ones include snoring and sleep apnea, insomnia, parasomnias, sleep paralysis, restless legs syndrome, circa...
Clinical trials are a set of procedures in medical research conducted to allow safety (or more specifically, information about adverse drug reactions and adverse effects of other treatments) and efficacy data to be collected for health interventions (e.g...