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The Low Carbon Fuel Standards (LCFS) represents a new policy approach designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by applying standards to all stages of motor fuel production. We use the synthetic control and difference-in-differences econometric methods, and Lasso machine learning to analyze the effect of the LCFS on emissions in California's transportation sector. The three different techniques provide robust evidence that the LCFS reduced carbon dioxide emissions in California's transportation sector by around 10%. Furthermore, our calculations show that improved air quality, due to the application of the LCFS, may have benefited California in the magnitude of hundreds of millions of dollars through an increase in worker's productivity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203167.].
Fossil fuel combustion by-products, including particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen dioxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO), are a significant threat to children's hea...
We examined the efficacy of the combined use of L-menthol spraying (L-mentholS) as an antispasmodic agent and carbon dioxide insufflation (CO2I) on the adenoma detection rate (ADR) in a prospective, s...
The transport sector is often seen as the most difficult sector to decarbonise. In recent years, so-called electrofuels have been proposed as one option for reducing emissions. Electrofuels - here def...
Carbonic acid was synthesized within an ice containing water and carbon dioxide by irradiation of ~9 eV photons. Vacuum UltraViolet (VUV)/UltraViolet (UV) photoabsorption spectra of the irradiated i...
We aim to test our method for measuring chemosensitivity (the ventilatory response to a change in carbon dioxide), which uses sinusoidal carbon dioxide stimuli. Hypotheses: - Ca...
The objective of this randomized clinical trial is to compare pain levels during and after insufflation with carbon dioxide or in subjects that will undergo endoscopic fulguration with arg...
Carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy significantly reduces discomfort (pain, bloating and flatulence) after the procedure. So far, it has not been studied in inflammatory bowel d...
The purpose of this study is to determine if blowing carbon dioxide into the surgical field during open-heart surgery to displace retained chest cavity air from the atmosphere will decreas...
Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) requires a contrast agent to identify the vascular anatomy and placement of the stent graft. Iodine contrast has traditi...
An enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide. It catalyzes irreversibly the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide. This fixation of carbon dioxide in several bacteria and some plants is the first step in the biosynthesis of glucose. EC 22.214.171.124.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 126.96.36.199.
Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC 188.8.131.52.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.