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Regulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is a major process maintaining glucose homeostasis in mammals. Enhancing insulin release in response to chronic nutrient overload and obesity-related insulin resistance (pre-diabetes) requires several adaptive cellular mechanisms maintaining β-cell health under such stresses. Once these mechanisms are overwhelmed, β-cell failure occurs leading to full-blown Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Nutrient-dependent macroautophagy represents one such adaptive mechanism in β-cells. While macroautophagy levels are high and protective in β-cells in pre-diabetes, they decrease at later stages contributing to β-cell failure. However, mechanisms compromising macroautophagy in β-cells remain poorly understood. In this review, we discuss how recently discovered signalling cascades that emanate from the limiting membrane of lysosomes contribute to changes in macroautophagy flux in physiology and disease. In particular, these mechanisms are put into context with β-cell function highlighting most recently described links between nutrient-dependent lysosomal signalling pathways and insulin secretion. Understanding these mechanisms in response to metabolic stress might pave the way for development of more tailored treatment strategies aimed at preserving β-cell health.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Diabetes, obesity & metabolism
In addition to being the terminal degradative compartment of the cell's endocytic and autophagic pathways, the lysosome is a multifunctional signalling hub integrating the cell's response to nutrient ...
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Peptides which stimulate INSULIN release from the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS following oral nutrient ingestion, or postprandially.
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Cell surface proteins that bind pancreatic hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. These include receptors for glucagon (secreted by alpha cells), insulin (secreted by beta cells), somatostatin (secreted by delta cells), and pancreatic peptide (secreted by PP cells). Some of these hormones and receptors also support neurotransmission.
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Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas caused by the release of activated pancreatic enzymes. Common triggers are biliary tract disease and chronic heavy alcohol intake. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation...