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Opium is the latex from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum L. which man has utilized since ancient Mesopotamia all the way to modern times. Opium used to be surrounded in divine mystery or magic like abilities and was given to cure a wide verity of diseases until its analgesic, antitussive, and antidiarrheal properties were understood and the resulting alkaloids were isolated and their structure and properties unmasked. Opium went from being sold in any store front in the form of pills or tinctures with no prescription necessary for purchase, or smoked in an opium den down the street, to then bringing about consumer advocacy and the right to know what is in a medication. Legislation to limit the prescribing and selling of medications to doctors and pharmacists, as well as outlawing opium dens and smoking opium. This review will focus primarily on the uses of opium throughout history, the isolation of the principle alkaloids, and their structure elucidation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS chemical neuroscience
Opium has found great use medicinally for its analgesic properties and has been witnessed as one of the most popular medications used in psychiatry. Opium derivatives have been shown efficacious for r...
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Opioid-dependent patients seeking maintenance treatment will be recruited. Each participant will be allocated to one of the two study groups with the equal chance of receiving either opium...
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The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Strong physiological and emotional dependence on OPIUM.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
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