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Tetracyclines are a class of antimicrobials frequently found in the environment, and have promoted the proliferation of antibiotic resistance. An unanswered research question is whether tetracycline sorbed to soils is still bioavailable to bacteria and exerts selective pressure on the bacterial community for the development of antibiotic resistance. In this study, bioreporter E. coli MC4100/pTGM strain was used to probe the bioavailability of tetracycline sorbed by smectite clay, a class of common soil minerals. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to prepare clay samples with a wide range of sorbed tetracycline concentration. The bioreporter was incubated with tetracycline-sorbed clay at different clay/solution ratios and water contents, as well as using dialysis tubings to prevent the direct contact between bacterial cells and clay particles. The expression of antibiotic resistance genes from the bioreporter was measured using a flow cytometer as a measurement of bioavailability/selective pressure. The direct contact of bioreporter cells to clay surfaces represented an important pathway facilitating bacterial access to clay-sorbed tetracycline. In clay-water suspensions, reducing solution volume rendered more bacteria to attach to clay surfaces enhancing the bioavailability of clay-sorbed tetracycline. The strong fluorescence emission from bioreporter cells on clay surfaces indicated that clay-sorbed tetracycline was still bioavailable to bacteria. The formation of biofilms on clay surfaces could increase bacterial access to clay-sorbed tetracycline. In addition, desorption of loosely sorbed tetracycline into bulk solution contributed to bacterial exposure and activation of the antibiotic resistance genes. Tetracycline sorbed by soil geosorbents could exert selective pressure on the surrounding microbial communities via bacterial exposure to tetracycline in solution from desorption and to the geosorbent-sorbed tetracycline as well.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
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Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
Strains of Escherichia coli that possess virulence traits which allow them to invade, colonize, and induce disease in tissues outside of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. They are a cause of URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS (UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI); neonatal MENINGITIS; SEPSIS; PNEUMONIA; and SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION.
An enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli of the O subfamily that can cause severe FOODBORNE DISEASE. The H4 serotype strain produces SHIGA TOXINS and has been linked to human disease outbreaks, including some cases of HEMOLYTIC-UREMIC SYNDROME, resulting from contamination of foods by feces containing E. coli O104.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
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