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This study estimates the lingering effects of fetal exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic on the development of secondary school and girls' high school students in industrializing Japan. In order to refine the verification of the fetal origins hypothesis, we tried not only to focus on children from elite schools but also to construct the continuous influenza mortality measure using monthly variations in the number of births and influenza deaths. By utilizing a nationwide multidimensional physical examination dataset, we found that fetal exposure to influenza in the pandemic years reduced the heights of boys and girls by approximately 0.3 cm and 0.1 cm, respectively. While the strongest negative magnitude was observed in the pandemic period, the lingering relapses in the post-pandemic period still had considerable adverse effects on height. In relation to the lowest decile group which experienced normal influenza mortality in non-pandemic years, the heights of the boys and girls who experienced pandemic influenza in the womb are approximately 0.6 and 0.3 cm lower. The lingering influenza relapse in the post-pandemic period has an adverse effect on the boys' height, accounting for roughly 80% of the maximum pandemic effect.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Economics and human biology
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The pandemic influenza 1918 was the greatest pandemic of the 20th century with a high death toll worldwide. Due to the wartime, the public reaction in Germany to the pandemic was subdued. The internat...
The World Health Organisation has warned that an influenza pandemic is inevitable. The avian influenza strain H5N1 is one of the leading candidates to cause the next influenza pandemic. Ch...
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The World Health Organisation has warned that an influenza pandemic is inevitable. The avian influenza H5N1 virus strain is the leading candidate to cause the next avian influenza pandemic...
The World Health Organisation has warned that an influenza pandemic is inevitable. The avian influenza H5N1 virus strain is one of the leading candidates to cause the next influenza pandem...
The influenza outbreaks of 1918 to 1919 also known as Spanish flu pandemic. First reported in Haskell County in Kansas in March of 1918 the disease spread throughout the world and may have killed as many as 25 million people.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
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