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While population studies have resulted in detailed maps of genetic variation in humans, to date there are few robust maps of epigenetic variation. We identified sites containing clusters of CpGs with high inter-individual epigenetic variation, termed Variably Methylated Regions (VMRs) in five purified cell types. We observed that VMRs occur preferentially at enhancers and 3' UTRs. While the majority of VMRs have high heritability, a subset of VMRs within the genome show highly correlated variation in trans, forming co-regulated networks that have low heritability, differ between cell types and are enriched for specific transcription factor binding sites and biological pathways of functional relevance to each tissue. For example, in T cells we defined a network of 95 co-regulated VMRs enriched for genes with roles in T-cell activation; in fibroblasts a network of 34 co-regulated VMRs comprising all four HOX gene clusters enriched for control of tissue growth; and in neurons a network of 18 VMRs enriched for roles in synaptic signaling. By culturing genetically-identical fibroblasts under varying environmental conditions, we experimentally demonstrated that some VMR networks are responsive to the environment, with methylation levels at these loci changing in a coordinated fashion in trans dependent on cellular growth. Intriguingly these environmentally-responsive VMRs showed a strong enrichment for imprinted loci (p<10-80), suggesting that these are particularly sensitive to environmental conditions. Our study provides a detailed map of common epigenetic variation in the human genome, showing that both genetic and environmental causes underlie this variation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS genetics
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The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Differences in measurable biological values, characteristics, or traits, within one individual under different conditions for the individual such as fasting, season of the year, age, or state of wellness.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Work consisting of the designation of an article or book as retracted in whole or in part by an author or authors or an authorized representative. It identifies a citation previously published and now retracted through a formal issuance from the author, publisher, or other authorized agent, and is distinguished from RETRACTION OF PUBLICATION, which identifies the citation retracting the original published item.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. ...