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Primary and secondary metabolites exuded by plant roots have mainly been studied under laboratory conditions, while knowledge of root exudate patterns of plants growing in natural communities is very limited. Focusing on ten common European grassland plant species, we asked to which degree exuded metabolite compositions are specific to species or growth forms (forbs and grasses), depend on environments and local neighbourhoods, and reflect traditional plant functional traits. Root exudates were collected under field conditions and analysed using a non-targeted gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach. In total, we annotated 153 compounds of which 36 were identified by structure and name as metabolites mainly derived from the primary metabolism. Here we show by using variance partitioning, that the composition of exuded polar metabolites was mostly explained by plot identity, followed by plant species identity while plant species composition of the local neighbourhood played no role. Total and root dry biomass explained the largest proportion of variance in exudate composition, with additional variance explained by traditional plant traits. Although the exudate composition was quite similar between the two growth forms, we found some metabolites that occurred only in one of the two growth forms. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of measuring polar exudates under non-sterile field conditions by mass spectrometry, which opens new avenues of research for functional plant ecology.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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To evaluate two different techniques of cross linking: standard epithelium off (CXL epi off) versus trans-epithelial (CXL epi on) cross linking in patient with progressive keratoconus.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.
An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family PHYLLOBACTERIACEAE. They are able to invade root-hairs of a wide range of plants, inciting the production of PLANT ROOT NODULES.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.