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In 2017 the German Sleep Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin, DGSM) published the new S3 guideline "Nonrestorative Sleep/Sleep Disorders, chapter "Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in Adults".Sleep apnea contributes to an increased morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases, e. g. coronary heart disease, heart failure and diabetes mellitus and is associated with an increased perioperative risk. It is also an important comorbidity in respiratory, neurologic and oncologic diseases. Treatment of sleep apnea can improve daytime sleepiness, quality of life und reduce blood pressure. In patients with atrial fibrillation, obstructive sleep apnea treatment should be optimized to improve treatment results. In addition to CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) therapy and mandibular advancement devices, there are new therapies (e. g. hypoglossal nerve stimulation). Telemonitoring can help to improved therapy adherence. Nevertheless, in a current study CPAP could not prevent cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and established cardiovascular disease. Patients with predominantly central sleep apnea and systolic hear failure (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 45 %) had an increased cardiovascular mortality when treated with adaptive servoventilation. Therefore, ASV is contraindicated in this small group of patients. Further studies are ongoing.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
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A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
Sleep disorders disrupt sleep during the night, or cause sleepiness during the day, caused by physiological or psychological factors. The common ones include snoring and sleep apnea, insomnia, parasomnias, sleep paralysis, restless legs syndrome, circa...
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...