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Chiral pharmaceuticals (CPs), including non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), β-blockers and some herbicide and pesticides, are widely used in aquaculture, clinical treatment and many other fields. However, people are increasingly concerned about such ubiquitous pollutants, which can frequently be detected in contaminated soil and water. In large part, the significant sources of chiral pharmaceuticals stem from industrial processes, such as the direct discharge of untreated or incompletely treated wastewaters containing chiral pharmaceuticals, incorrect storage and use, animal wastes and biosolids. The main ways for human exposure to chiral pharmaceuticals are the disease treatment process and chiral pharmaceuticals contaminants. According to the results of a series of toxic studies, some diseases, even cancers, may be associated with exposure to certain chiral pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the treatment of chiral pharmaceuticals has become an important issue. The current advanced remediation techniques for chiral pharmaceuticals include the conventional method (sorption and sonolysis), biotransformation (an aerobic granular sludge-sequencing batch reactor and constructed wetland system) and advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and photocatalysis). Herein, in this review, we summarize the current status and sources of chiral pharmaceuticals, potential effects on human health, as well as the superiority, disadvantages and prospects of current advanced remediation technologies. Moreover, we also anticipate the prospect of the future research needed for chiral pharmaceuticals pollutant remediation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environment international
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Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Opportunity to attain full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of their social position or other socially determined circumstance.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Polymers of N-SUBSTITUTED GLYCINES containing chiral centers at the a-position of their side chains. These oligomers lack HYDROGEN BONDING donors, preventing formation of the usual intrachain hydrogen bonds but can form helices driven by the steric influence of chiral side chains.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...