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The retrospective analysis of endogenous steroid hormones in nails can be used to elucidate endocrine diseases and thus help with their diagnosis and treatment. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based method was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of 12 steroid hormones (aldosterone, cortisone, cortisol, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, androstenedione, 11-deoxycorticosterone, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and progesterone) in human fingernails. Steroid hormones were extracted from 0.5 mg - 10 mg pulverized nail clippings by methanolic extraction, followed by a liquid-liquid extraction. The analysis was conducted with LC-MS/MS in electrospray ionization positive mode. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, matrix effect, recovery and robustness. It was successfully applied for steroid profiling in nails of mothers and their infants where cortisol, cortisone, testosterone, progesterone, androstenedione and 11-deoxycorticosterone could be detected. Furthermore, it could be shown that there is no significant difference in concentrations between left and right hand for cortisol, cortisone and progesterone. A positive linear correlation between cortisol and cortisone in nails was found. In conclusion, it could be shown that nails are a suitable matrix for the retrospective monitoring of cumulative steroid hormone levels.
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A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
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