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Cerebral palsy is an irreversible movement disorder resulting from cerebral damage sustained during prenatal or neonatal brain development. As survival outcomes for preterm injury improve, there is increasing need to model ischemic injury at earlier neonatal time-points to better understand the subsequent pathological consequences. Here we demonstrate a novel neonatal ischemic model using focal administration of the potent vasoconstrictor peptide, endothelin-1 (ET-1), in newborn rats. The functional and histopathological outcomes compare favourably to those reported following the widely used hypoxic ischemia (HI) model. These include a robust motor deficit sustained into adulthood and recapitulation of hallmark features of preterm human brain injury, including atrophy of subcortical white matter and periventricular fibre bundles. Compared to procedures involving carotid artery manipulation and periods of hypoxia, the ET-1 ischemia model represents a rapid and technically simplified model more amenable to larger cohorts and with the potential to direct the locus of ischemic damage to specific brain areas.
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There is a pressing need for new approaches to preventing stroke. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote vascular repair and revascularization in the ischemic brain. This study sought to evaluate...
Early brain development is closely dictated by distinct neurobiological principles. Here, we aimed to map early trajectories of structural brain wiring in the neonatal brain.
Cerebral vasospasm may lead to delayed ischemic neurological deficits following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Endothelin (ET-1) is an important factor participating in cerebral vasospasm underlying S...
To develop an evidence-based, standardized structured reporting (SR) method for brain MRI examinations in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) suitable both for clinical and research use.
Perinatal HI (hypoxia-ischemia)-related visual defects including blindness are known to be associated with ischemic lesions in intracerebral visual pathways and ischemic retinal damage (IRD). Intra...
Perinatal asphyxia is common cause of acquired neonatal brain injury in neonates associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, leading to long-term neurologic complication or death. In ...
While perinatal ischemic stroke is the most frequent form of childhood stroke, early determinants of outcome remain poorly understood. Two main structural biases limit the accuracy of most...
Perinatal asphyxia-induced brain injury is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in term and preterm neonates, accounting for 23% of neonatal deaths globally. Although m...
Perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy occurs in one to three infants per 1000 term births, and up to 12 000 infants are affected each year in the united state of America. Hypoxic isch...
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of death or long-term disability in infants born at term in the western world, affecting about 1-4 per 1.000 life births and...
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Metalloendopeptidases which convert BIG ENDOTHELIN to ENDOTHELIN-1.
A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...