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A systematic review of the literature regarding drug packaging methods in body packing and materials used is presented, with the aim (a) to summarize data regarding the packaging methods adopted by drug trafficking organizations, (b) to support forensic pathologists and police forces to classify and describe drug packages, (c) to propose a new classification for drug packaging techniques, and (d) to better clarify the impact of packaging methods on radiological detectability.Packaging methods have been described in 2981 cases, permitting us to summarize the different materials used and to propose a new classification for packaging method based on the materials used. Information concerning the affiliation of body packers and pushers with major (or not) drug trafficking organizations and techniques used to reduce the radiological detectability of the concealed drugs have also been collected.Besides the packaging methods described over the years, our study suggests a standardized approach for the description of drug packages based on the use of different materials and packaging procedures, which provide a possible insight to the type of drug trafficking organization involved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology
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Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and biological products. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Concealing of drugs within the gastrointestinal tract or other body orifice for purposes of DRUG SMUGGLING or to avoid detection by law enforcement. Contraband other than drugs is also sometimes smuggled this way.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...