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Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are critical events in neurodegenerative diseases; therefore, molecules that increase cellular antioxidant defenses represent a future pharmacologic strategy to counteract such conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of (PhSe) on mouse hippocampal cell line (HT22) exposed to tert-BuOOH (in vitro model of oxidative stress), as well as to elucidate potential mechanisms underlying this protection. Our results showed that tert-BuOOH caused time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, which was preceded by increased oxidants production and mitochondrial dysfunction. (PhSe) pre-incubation significantly prevented these cytotoxic events and the observed protective effects were paralleled by the upregulation of the cellular glutathione-dependent antioxidant system: (PhSe) increased GSH levels (> 60%), GPx activity (6.9-fold) and the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes Gpx1 (3.9-fold) and Gclc (2.3-fold). Of note, the cytoprotective effect of (PhSe) was significantly decreased when cells were treated with mercaptosuccinic acid, an inhibitor of GPx, indicating the involvement of GPx modulation in the observed protective effect. In summary, the present findings bring out a new action mechanism concerning the antioxidant properties of (PhSe). The observed upregulation of the glutathione-dependent antioxidant system represents a future pharmacologic possibility that goes beyond the well-known thiol-peroxidase activity of this compound.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Redox biology
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A protein deglycase that repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated amino acids and proteins, releasing repaired proteins and lactate or glycolate. It deglycates CYSTEINE, ARGININE and LYSINE residues to reactivate proteins by reversing glycation and prevent the formation of ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS. It protects cells against OXIDATIVE STRESS and CELL DEATH by functioning as an oxidative stress sensor and redox-sensitive MOLECULAR CHAPERONE and PROTEASE. Mutations in the PARK7 gene are associated with autosomal-recessive, early-onset PARKINSON DISEASE.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.
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