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Cancer immunotherapy has led to impressive antitumor effects. However, not all patients respond to immunotherapy, serious toxicity can occur and combination therapy may be warranted. Strategies for rational early treatment choices are urgently required. In the absence of ideal accompanying biomarkers it remains challenging to capture the dynamic, heterogeneous and complex tumor behavior. Tumor immune response involves next to tumor cells, numerous other cells and molecules in the tumor microenvironment. We review research to identify potential novel imaging biomarkers by non-invasive whole body molecular imaging with positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography for cancer immunotherapy. Firstly, imaging with radiolabeled immune checkpoint targeting molecules. Secondly, imaging of immune cells with ex vivo or in vivo radiolabeled tracers and thirdly, imaging extracellular matrix components, including adhesion molecules, growth factors and cytokines. These molecular imaging strategies - used alone, in combination or serially - could potentially contribute to patient selection upfront or early during immunotherapy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cancer treatment reviews
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The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; fluorescence imaging; and MICROSCOPY.
The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.
The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.
Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.
Mechanisms and underlying psychological principles of mental processes and their applications.
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...