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The pancreatic secretion of insulin, a key endocrine regulator of metabolism and growth, can be greatly influenced by the gut-derived incretin hormones, namely by GIP (Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Peptide) and GLP-1 (Glucagon-like Peptide 1). As insulin is a major stimulator of growth, affecting its producion may be of special importance in food-producing livestock. The aim of the present study was to investigate novel ways of modulating incretin and insulin homeostasis in chickens and rabbits by nutrition, e.g. by oral butyrate application, also studying the mechanisms of incretin action in both species as a comparative approach. Acute oral butyrate challenge significantly decreased plasma GIP levels by approx. 40% in both species: significant interactions of butyrate exposure and incubation time were found in both chickens (P = 0.038 and P = 0.034 at 30 and 60 min following butyrate ingestion [1.25 g/kg BW], respectively) and rabbits (P = 0.036 and P = 0.039 at 30 and 60 min after butyrate ingestion [0.25 g/kg BW], respectively), while plasma GLP-1, insulin and glucose concentrations remained unaffected by butyrate in both species over time. These results are in contrast to butyrate's stimulating effect on both incretin and insulin secretion in mice, indicating specific, species-dependent differences even among mammalian species. Further, based on the analyzed correlations between the measured endocrine parameters (regardless of the butyrate exposure), it can be assumed that incretins may regulate pancreatic insulin release in rabbits on a partly different way compared to mice, humans and chickens.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A dietary intervention trial will be performed on patients affected by Behçet's syndrome. Three different diets will be compared, analyzing their effects on the gut microbiota composition...
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The study of the similarities and differences in the structures of homologous tissues across various species.
Comparison of outcomes, results, responses, etc for different techniques, therapeutic approaches or other inputs.
The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS. It can be caused by the presence of INSULIN ANTIBODIES or the abnormalities in insulin receptors (RECEPTOR, INSULIN) on target cell surfaces. It is often associated with OBESITY; DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS; INFECTION; and certain rare conditions. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
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