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Neurodevelopmental problems (NPs) are more common in males, whereas anxiety and depression are more common in females. Rare copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between rare CNVs with NPs, anxiety, and depression in a childhood population sample, as well as to examine sex-specific effects. We analyzed a sample of N = 12,982 children, of whom 5.3% had narrowly defined NPs (clinically diagnosed), 20.9% had broadly defined NPs (based on validated screening measures, but no diagnosis), and 3.0% had clinically diagnosed anxiety or depression. Rare (<1% frequency) CNVs were categorized by size (100-500 kb or > 500 kb), type, and putative relevance to NPs. We tested for association of CNV categories with outcomes and examined sex-specific effects. Medium deletions (OR[CI] = 1.18[1.05-1.33], p = .0053) and large duplications (OR[CI] = 1.45[1.19-1.75], p = .00017) were associated with broadly defined NPs. Large deletions (OR[CI] = 1.85[1.14-3.01], p = .013) were associated with narrowly defined NPs. There were no significant sex differences in CNV burden in individuals with NPs. Although CNVs were not associated with anxiety/depression in the whole sample, in individuals diagnosed with these disorders, females were more likely to have large CNVs (OR[CI] = 3.75[1.45-9.68], p = .0064). Rare CNVs are associated with both narrowly and broadly defined NPs in a general population sample of children. Our results also suggest that large, rare CNVs may show sex-specific phenotypic effects.
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The number of males per 100 females.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
A copy number variation that results in reduced GENE DOSAGE due to any loss-of-function mutation. The loss of heterozygosity is associated with abnormal phenotypes or diseased states because the remaining gene is insufficient.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...
Depression is a serious mental health condition, where sad feelings carry on for weeks or months and interfere with your life. The symptoms include feeling unhappy most of the time (but may feel a little better in the evenings), loosing interest in lif...
Adhd Anorexia Depression Dyslexia Mental Health Psychiatry Schizophrenia Stress Mental health, although not being as obvious as physical health, is very important, causing great unhappiness to those affected, causing add...