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Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is ubiquitous in the aqueous environment. And due to its ecotoxicological effects and potential risks to human, an effective way to eliminate OXC from aqueous environment has aroused public concerns in recent years. Radical-based reactions have been shown to be an efficient way for OXC destruction, but the reactions of OXC with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and carbonate radical (CO) are still unclear. In this study, we focused the degradation of OXC and ROS, CO generation mechanism, and their roles in OXC degradation via UV and UV/HO. The triplet state of oxcarbazepine (OXC) was found to play an important role in OXC degradation via UV. And hydroxyl radicals (OH) and singlet oxygen (O) were found to be the dominant ROS in OXC degradation. Superoxide radical (O) did not react with OXC directly, but it may react with intermediate byproducts. Generation of CO played a positive role on OXC degradation for both UV and UV/HO. In addition to OH, OXC* also contribute to CO production. The second-order rate constants of OXC with OH and CO were 1.7 × 10 M s and 8.6 × 10 M s, respectively. Potential OXC degradation mechanisms by OH were proposed and included hydroxylation, α-ketol rearrangement, and benzylic acid rearrangement. Compared with non-selective OH, the reactions involving CO are mainly electron transfer and hydrogen abstraction. And the acute toxicity of OXC was lower after UV/HO and UV/HO/HCO treatments, which was confirmed by luminescent bacterial assay (Vibrio fischeri bacterium).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A field of chemistry which pertains to chemical compounds or ions that do not contain the element carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide and compounds containing a carbonate radical, e.g., calcium carbonate).
A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)
A measure of the ability of a substance, such as a food, to quench oxygen free radicals in vitro.
NADPH oxidases that contain two additional EF HAND MOTIFS and an N-terminal PEROXIDASE domain. They are expressed by THYROCYTES and EPITHELIAL CELLS of the kidney, liver, trachea, lung, and glandular tissues such as the testis, pancreas, and prostate. They are critical for the activity of THYROID PEROXIDASE and play a role in the production of thyroid hormones; they may also have antimicrobial activity through the generation of REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES.
An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity. This can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample. ...