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Vertebrates utilize six extraocular muscles that attach to a tough, protective sclera to rotate the eye. The goal of the study was to describe the maximum tetanic forces, as well as the torques produced by the six extraocular muscles of the piked dogfish Squalus acanthias in order to understand the forces exerted on the eye. The lateral rectus extraocular muscle of Squalus acanthias was determined to be parallel fibered with the muscle fibers bundled into discrete fascicles. The extraocular muscles attach to the sclera by muscular insertions. The total tensile forces generated by the extraocular muscles ranged from 1.18 N to 2.21 N. The torques of the extraocular muscles ranged from 0.39 to 2.34 N. The torques were greatest in the principal direction of movement for each specific muscle. The lateral rectus produced the greatest total tensile force, as well as the greatest torque force component, while the medial rectus produced the second greatest. This is likely due to the constant rotational movement of the eye anteriorly and posteriorly in order to stabilize the visual image, as well as increase the effective visual field during swimming. Rotational forces in dimensions other than the primary direction of movement may contribute to motion in directions other than the principal direction during multi-muscle contraction that occurs in the vertebrate eye. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)
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Retrospective medical chart and medical imaging file review of patients suffering from palsy of the superior rectus extraocular muscle
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A species of shark in the family SQUALIDAE, used for its oil (SQUALENE) and as fish meal. It also figures heavily in biological research, especially with reference to its RECTAL GLAND in studies of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Sharks of the family Squalidae, also called dogfish sharks. They comprise at least eight genera and 44 species. Their LIVER is valued for its oil and its flesh is often made into fertilizer.
Inflammation of the extraocular muscle of the eye. It is characterized by swelling which can lead to ischemia, fibrosis, or ORBITAL PSEUDOTUMOR.
A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mitochondrial myopathy characterized by slowly progressive paralysis of the levator palpebrae, orbicularis oculi, and extraocular muscles. Ragged-red fibers and atrophy are found on muscle biopsy. Familial and sporadic forms may occur. Disease onset is usually in the first or second decade of life, and the illness slowly progresses until usually all ocular motility is lost. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1422)
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