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Cytokinesis and single-cell wound repair both involve contractile assemblies of filamentous actin (F-actin) and myosin II organized into characteristic ring-like arrays. The assembly of these actomyosin contractile rings (CRs) is specified spatially and temporally by small Rho GTPases, which trigger local actin polymerization and myosin II contractility via a variety of downstream effectors. We now have a much clearer view of the Rho GTPase signalling cascade that leads to the formation of CRs, but some factors involved in CR positioning, assembly, and function remain poorly understood. Recent studies show that this regulation is multifactorial and goes beyond the long-established Ca -dependent processes. There is substantial evidence that the Ca -independent changes in cell shape, tension, and plasma membrane composition that characterize cytokinesis and single-cell wound repair also regulate CR formation. Elucidating the regulation and mechanistic properties of CRs is important to our understanding of basic cell biology and holds potential for therapeutic applications in human disease. In this review, we present a primer on the factors influencing and regulating CR positioning, assembly, and contraction as they occur in a variety of cytokinetic and single-cell wound repair models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Name: Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)
Animal cells divide by a process called cytokinesis which relies on the constriction of a contractile actomyosin ring leading to the production of two daughter cells. Cytokinesis is an intrinsic prope...
Cytokinesis in many eukaryotic cells is orchestrated by a contractile actomyosin ring. While many of the proteins involved are known, the mechanism of constriction remains unclear. Informed by the exi...
Epithelium undergoes complex deformations during morphogenesis. Many of these deformations rely on the remodelling of apical cell junctions by actomyosin-based contractile force and this has been a ma...
Stress fibers are contractile actomyosin bundles that guide cell adhesion, migration, and morphogenesis. Their assembly and alignment are under precise mechanosensitive control. Thus, stress fiber net...
A growing amount of experimental evidence shows that the local elastic field acting on cells governs their spatial organization and polarity in a tissue. Interestingly, experiments on wound healing re...
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An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
Multiprotein complexes in GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA that deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells by a mechanism similar to the contractile tail of bacteriophages. They are composed of a cell envelope-spanning tube which is surrounded by a contractile sheath and tipped by a cell puncturing complex; a base plate structure that anchors the assembly to the cell envelope; and an ATPase involved in the sheath contraction and disassembly of the complex.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
A rho GTP-binding protein that is prenylated (see PROTEIN PRENYLATION) at its C-terminus and cycles between the cytoplasm and plasma membrane, linking receptor signaling pathways with assembly of FOCAL ADHESIONS; STRESS FIBERS; and contractile ring formation during CYTOKINESIS. It is overexpressed in proliferating and metastatic tumor cells.
A dioxygenase and alkylation repair homolog that mediates demethylation of ACTIN monomethylated at 'Lys-84' (K84me1). Demethylation of actin LYSINE 84 (K84me1) is required for maintaining actin and MYOSIN dynamics to support normal cleavage furrow ingression during CYTOKINESIS and CELL MIGRATION. It may also be involved in transcription regulation.
Anything that breaks the skin is a wound because when the skin is broken, there's a risk of germs getting into the body and causing an infection. Follow and track Wound Care News on BioPortfolio: Wound Car...