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Similar to bacteria, yeast, and other organisms that have evolved pathways to respond to environmental stresses, cancer cells develop mechanisms that increase genetic diversity to facilitate adaptation to a variety of stressful conditions, including hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, exposure to DNA-damaging agents, and immune responses. To survive, cancer cells trigger mechanisms that drive genomic instability and mutation, alter gene expression programs, and reprogram the metabolic pathways to evade growth inhibition signaling and immune surveillance. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathways used by cancer cells to overcome stresses will allow us to develop more efficacious strategies for cancer therapy. Herein, we overview several key stresses imposed on cancer cells, including oxidative, metabolic, mechanical, and genotoxic, and discuss the mechanisms that drive cancer cell responses. The therapeutic implications of these responses are also considered, as these factors pave the way for the targeting of stress adaption pathways in order to slow cancer progression and block resistance to therapy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Thoracic cancer
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An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.
Process by which cells irreversibly stop dividing and enter a state of permanent growth arrest without undergoing CELL DEATH. Senescence can be induced by DNA DAMAGE or other cellular stresses, such as OXIDATIVE STRESS.
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Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...