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Stable isotopes are powerful tools for tracing the metabolic fate of molecules in the human body. In this chapter, we focus on the use of deuterium (H), a stable isotope of hydrogen, in the study of human lipid metabolism within the liver in vivo in humans and in vitro using hepatocyte cellular models. The measurement of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) will be focussed on, as the synthesis of fatty acids, specifically palmitate, has been gathering momentum as being implicated in cellular dysfunction, which may be involved in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, this chapter focusses specifically on the use of HO (heavy water) to measure hepatic DNL.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
A family of vertebrate and insect lipid droplet associated proteins. They consist of a conserved N-terminal PAT domain (an alpha-helical region of about 110 amino acids), an 11-mer repeat region, and lipid-binding hydrophobic regions or 4-helix bundles near their C-termini. Perilipins transiently or constitutively localize to LIPID DROPLETS in ADIPOCYTES and FOAM CELLS, especially in regions adjacent to the PLASMA MEMBRANE and ENDOPLASMIC RECTICULUM. They are critical for lipid droplet synthesis and homeostasis as well as the regulation of lipid metabolism. Genetic variations in perilipins are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS; OBESITY; and DIABETES MELLITUS.
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