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Celiac disease is a small intestinal inflammatory disease with autoimmune features that is triggered and maintained by the ingestion of the storage proteins (gluten) of wheat, barley and rye. The prevalence of celiac disease is increased in patients with monoglandular and/or polyglandular autoimmunity and their relatives. Between 10 and 30% of patients with celiac disease are thyroid and/or type 1 diabetes antibody positive, while around 5 to 7% of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes are IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody positive. The close relationship between celiac disease and endocrine autoimmunity is largely explained by sharing a common genetic background. The HLA antigens DQ2 (DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201) and/or DQ8 (DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302), that are tightly linked to DR3 and DR4, respectively, are the major common genetic predisposition. Moreover, functional single nucleotide polymorphisms of various genes that are involved in immune regulation have been identified as "overlap" susceptibility genes for both celiac disease and monoglandular or polyglandular autoimmunity. While plausible, it remains to be established how far a gluten free diet may prevent or ameliorate glandular autoimmunity. In conclusion, all patients with celiac disease should be screened for type 1 diabetes and/or autoimmune thyroid disease. Conversely, patients with the above autoimmune endocrine disorders should be also screened for celiac disease.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Autoimmunity reviews
The intestinal microbiota is thought to be involved in pathogenesis of celiac disease, along with genetic variants and dietary gluten. The gut microbiota is strongly influenced by systemic antibiotics...
Celiac disease has characteristics of an autoimmune disease, such as increased antibody levels to tissue transglutaminase (tTG). However, assays to measure these biomarkers in blood samples do not ide...
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder related to the gluten and can be also associated with some other endocrine disorders such as type 1 diabetes and thyroid disease. Gluten exposure in CD ma...
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Celiac disease (CD) is characterized as an autoimmune disorder whereby gluten (a protein found in wheat, barley, rye, malt) induces an immunological response in genetically susceptible ind...
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