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Although the concept of death by neurologic criteria is accepted throughout much of the world and death can legally be determined by neurologic criteria throughout the United States, the process is fraught with contentious ethical and legal controversies. I explore historic and contemporary ethical and legal disputes about determination of death by neurologic criteria including the need for consent from patients' surrogates prior to determination of death, the role of religion in determination of death, management of objections to determination of death by neurologic criteria, the approach to patients who are dead by neurologic criteria but are pregnant, and gamete retrieval after determination of death.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Seminars in neurology
Brain death, or the determination of death by neurological criteria, has been described as a legal fiction. Legal fictions are devices by which the law treats two analogous things (in this case, biolo...
The determination of death by neurological criteria-"brain death"-has long been legally established as death in all U.S. jurisdictions. Moreover, the consequences of determining brain death have been ...
Along with the growing utilization of the total artificial heart (TAH) comes a new set of ethical issues that have, surprisingly, received little attention in the literature: (1) How does one apply th...
The concept of brain death has been a very intriguing topic and has taken many forms over the years. Brain stem death is a complex state of inactivity defined by the loss of reflexes of the pathways t...
The potential medical risks to egg donors, in addition to the concern over the commodification of life, has led to debates surrounding the ethics of paying donors. In Canada, payment for eggs is prohi...
The Ethical, Legal and Social Issues Substudy in relation to the Genotype Tissue Expression Project (GTEx) aims to describe tissue requesters' approach to discussions about donation to GTE...
Current standard of care prior to determination of brain death in subjects with suspected anoxic brain injury is to exclude complicating medical conditions that may confound clinical asses...
This study examines muscle movements of elecromyography in adults with brain death. Half of the participants will have brain death, the other half will be healthy volunteers.
The aim of this study is to test whether participation of low-income patients with health-harming legal needs (HHLNs) in a medical legal partnership (MLP) results in improved mental health...
Medical expert systems in combination with portal searching meta-search engines are exploited to provide reliable patient-tailored information. A prototype of a web-based information syste...
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.
Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.
Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)
Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.
Obstetrics and gynaecology
Fertility Menopause Obstetrics & Gynaecology Osteoporosis Women's Health Obstetrics and gynaecology comprises the care of the pregnant woman, her unborn child and the management of diseases specific to women. Most consultant...