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Prompt gamma (PG) rays emitted during proton therapy has been used for proton range verification. Because high-energy PG emission is well correlated to the Bragg peak (BP), high-energy PG rays are well-suited for proton range verification. However, the low production and detection of high-energy PG rays often lead to inaccurate BP position estimates. The aim of this study is to improve the BP position estimates obtained from high-energy PG rays. We propose a BP position estimation method based on the local maximum closest to the distal fall-off region. We present the results of Monte Carlo simulations in which a water phantom was irradiated with a proton beam. Our results show that the BP position estimated from the 6.13 MeV PG rays can be improved using the proposed position estimation method. Moreover, the 6.92 and 7.12 MeV PG rays can be used for predicting the BP position. However, the accuracy of the BP position estimation decreases with decreasing tissue oxygen levels. We also found that the subtraction of the PG images of 6.13 MeV from those of 6.92 and 7.12 MeV can be used to predict the BP position with a mean accuracy of < 2 mm. The accurate estimation of the BP position can be achieved using different high-energy PG rays, but factors including position estimation, irradiated tissue and event selection should be carefully taken into account.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine
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Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.