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The field of epigenetics describes the relationship between genotype and phenotype, by regulating gene expression without changing the canonical base sequence of DNA. It deals with molecular genomic information that is encoded by a rich repertoire of chemical modifications and molecular interactions. This regulation involves DNA, RNA and proteins that are enzymatically tagged with small molecular groups that alter their physical and chemical properties. It is now clear that epigenetic alterations are involved in development and disease, and thus, are the focus of intensive research. The ability to record epigenetic changes and quantify them in rare medical samples is critical for next generation diagnostics. Optical detection offers the ultimate single-molecule sensitivity and the potential for spectral multiplexing. Here we review recent progress in ultrasensitive optical detection of DNA and histone modifications.
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Name: Current opinion in biotechnology
Post-translational modifications of histones (e.g. acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination) play crucial roles in regulating gene expression by altering chromatin structures and c...
Single-molecule methods offer specificity in studying complex systems and dynamics, but they also offer high sensitivity for basic enumeration. We apply single-molecule TIRF to immunoassays by countin...
Histone modifications regulate chromatin structure and function. Primary and secondary metabolites stemming from environmental and chemical exposures may play a critical role in the underlying epigeno...
To evaluate analytical and biological characteristics of the Singulex Clarity® cTnI assay, based upon Single Molecule Counting technology.
Studies about epigenetics in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are rare. Histone modifications comprise epigenetic mechanisms that perform a key role in gene transcription and may regulate tumour de...
Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disorder that is triggered and influenced by gene-environment interactions. Although sarcoidosis predominantly affects the lungs in most cases, ...
The PHITE collaborative team, consisting of Wright State University (WSU), The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), and The Salk Institute for Biological Studies are working with fun...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of an optical device designed and developed for monitoring the intravenous infusion site for infiltration. The hypothes...
The investigators hypothesize that environmentally influenced histone modifications regulate AM mediated inflammation, contributing to a variable clinical course of AATD, and may also infl...
Optical sensing technologies have the potential to enable long-term heart rhythm monitoring. The medically certified and clinically validated FibriCheck technology has proven its value for...
Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.
A class II histone deacetylase that removes acetyl groups from N-terminal LYSINES of HISTONE H2A; HISTONE H2B; HISTONE H3; and HISTONE H4. It plays a critical role in EPIGENETIC REPRESSION and regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, as well as CELL MOTILITY through deacetylation of TUBULIN. It also targets misfolded proteins for clearance by AUTOPHAGY when MOLECULAR CHAPERONE-mediated folding is overwhelmed.
The method of measuring the dispersion of an optically active molecule to determine the relative magnitude of right- or left-handed components and sometimes structural features of the molecule.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...