Analytical epigenetics: single-molecule optical detection of DNA and histone modifications.

08:00 EDT 13th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Analytical epigenetics: single-molecule optical detection of DNA and histone modifications."

The field of epigenetics describes the relationship between genotype and phenotype, by regulating gene expression without changing the canonical base sequence of DNA. It deals with molecular genomic information that is encoded by a rich repertoire of chemical modifications and molecular interactions. This regulation involves DNA, RNA and proteins that are enzymatically tagged with small molecular groups that alter their physical and chemical properties. It is now clear that epigenetic alterations are involved in development and disease, and thus, are the focus of intensive research. The ability to record epigenetic changes and quantify them in rare medical samples is critical for next generation diagnostics. Optical detection offers the ultimate single-molecule sensitivity and the potential for spectral multiplexing. Here we review recent progress in ultrasensitive optical detection of DNA and histone modifications.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Current opinion in biotechnology
ISSN: 1879-0429
Pages: 151-158


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.

A class II histone deacetylase that removes acetyl groups from N-terminal LYSINES of HISTONE H2A; HISTONE H2B; HISTONE H3; and HISTONE H4. It plays a critical role in EPIGENETIC REPRESSION and regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, as well as CELL MOTILITY through deacetylation of TUBULIN. It also targets misfolded proteins for clearance by AUTOPHAGY when MOLECULAR CHAPERONE-mediated folding is overwhelmed.

The method of measuring the dispersion of an optically active molecule to determine the relative magnitude of right- or left-handed components and sometimes structural features of the molecule.

Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.

Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.

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