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Cognitive control requires a balance between persistence and flexibility. We studied inter- and intraindividual differences in the metacontrol bias towards persistence or flexibility in cognitive search tasks from various cognitive domains that require continuous switching between persistence and flexibility. For each task, clustering and switching scores were derived to assess persistence and flexibility, respectively, as well as a total performance score to reflect general performance. We compared two, not mutually exclusive accounts according to which the balance between clustering and switching scores is affected by (1) individual, trait-like metacontrol biases towards persistence or flexibility and/or (2) the metacontrol adaptivity to bias states according to changing situational demands. We found that clustering and switching scores failed to generalize across tasks. However, clustering and switching were inversely related and predicted the total performance scores in most of the tasks, which in turn partially generalized across tasks and task domains. We conclude that metacontrol-biases towards persistence or flexibility can be adapted easily to specific task demands and individual resources, possibly overwriting individual metacontrol trait biases. Moreover, we suggest that total performance scores might serve to measure metacontrol adaptivity in future studies if task-restrictions and resources are known and/or well balanced.
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Cognitive resource limitations can impair one's ability to multitask. Previous research has shown that climbing is a particularly demanding task, and does not neatly fit into existing cognitive resour...
Alexithymia is an important but poorly understood emotional deficit in schizophrenia. We aimed at investigating the role of basic cognitive functions, cognitive biases, and symptom severity in alexith...
Linking individual task performance to preceding, regional brain activation is an ongoing goal of neuroscientific research. Recently, it could be shown that the activation and connectivity within larg...
We measured the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on cognitive processes. We examined cognitive control, specifically working memory (WM), in a sample of N = 141 7- to 17-year-olds using rule-gui...
Information visualization designers strive to design data displays that allow for efficient exploration, analysis, and communication of patterns in data, leading to informed decisions. Unfortunately, ...
Aggressive behavior is a leading worldwide public health problem. Despite this, relatively little is known about how to best treat individuals who are highly angry and aggressive. A rich ...
The purpose of this study is to see what effect skipping breakfast versus consuming breakfast has on cognitive performance and the hormones responsible for glucose homeostasis in lean and ...
Cognitive biases are a hallmark of depression but there is scarce research on whether these biases can be directly modified by using specific cognitive training techniques. The aim of thi...
We are proposing a small randomized clinical trial in which 100 substance users will complete the existing Psychotherapy Development Center (PDC) pretreatment assessment battery as well as...
This pilot study is designed to investigate (1) whether getting iron treatment affects iron in the brain and (2) how getting iron treatment affects brain functions when it is performing sp...
Simultaneous task performance, or switching between tasks in a concentrated period of time.
Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.
Measure of how well someone performs given tasks at their place of work.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.