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This study describes development and evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Theileria annulata, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale infections in bovines. The assay was developed using parasites specific genomic DNA and three sets of PCR primers targeting the Tams1, 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes of T. annulata, B. bigemina and A. marginale, respectively. Blood samples collected from a total of 461 bovines, suspected for haemoparasitic infections, were examined microscopically to record the status of infection and simultaneously, genomic DNA extracted from these blood samples were utilized for the optimization and validation of multiplex PCR assay. Microscopic examination of blood samples revealed presence of single and multiple species of haemoparasites in 25.8% and 2.4% samples, respectively. Results of multiplex PCR revealed the presence of single haemoparasitic species infection in 159 cases (34.5%), whereas mixed infection was recorded in 82 (17.8%) samples. Occurrence of individual species infection detected by mPCR in the study was 26.03% (120/461) for T. annulata, 3.25% (15/461) for B. bigemina and 5.20% (24/461) for A. marginale. The detection limit of multiplex PCR assay was at the template dilutions of 10-6, 10-6 and 10-4, which corresponded to 0.1 pg, 0.1 pg and 10.0 pg of DNA for T. annulata, A. marginale, and B. bigemina, respectively. Based on the high diagnostic sensitivity and throughput, multiplex PCR assay developed in the present study could be exploited as a tool to conduct large-scale epidemiological survey for tick-borne haemoparasitic infection of bovines.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta parasitologica
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The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...
An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity. This can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample. ...