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Nitric oxide (NO) is a small free radical with critical signaling roles in physiology and pathophysiology. The generation of sufficient NO levels to regulate the resistance of the blood vessels and hence the maintenance of adequate blood flow is critical to the healthy performance of the vasculature. A novel paradigm indicates that classical NO synthesis by dedicated NO synthases is supplemented by nitrite reduction pathways under hypoxia. At the same time, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which include superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, are produced in the vascular system for signaling purposes, as effectors of the immune response, or as byproducts of cellular metabolism. NO and ROS can be generated by distinct enzymes or by the same enzyme through alternate reduction and oxidation processes. The latter oxidoreductase systems include NO synthases, molybdopterin enzymes, and hemoglobins, which can form superoxide by reduction of molecular oxygen or NO by reduction of inorganic nitrite. Enzymatic uncoupling, changes in oxygen tension, and the concentration of coenzymes and reductants can modulate the NO/ROS production from these oxidoreductases and determine the redox balance in health and disease. The dysregulation of the mechanisms involved in the generation of NO and ROS is an important cause of cardiovascular disease and target for therapy. In this review we will present the biology of NO and ROS in the cardiovascular system, with special emphasis on their routes of formation and regulation, as well as the therapeutic challenges and opportunities for the management of NO and ROS in cardiovascular disease.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physiological reviews
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Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A metabolic excess of REACTIVE NITROGEN SPECIES, including NITRIC OXIDE and PEROXYNITRITE, that leads to damaging effects of oxidation and nitration.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
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Vascular relates to blood vessels (Oxford Medical Dictionary) and can be used to describe the supply of blood, a disease affecting the blood vessels or molecules associated with these structures. For example, <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->atherosclerosis ...