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Increased life expectancy impacts directly on the number of older people worldwide with the associated increase in neurodegenerative diseases. Besides their social implications, the different forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies or frontotemporal dementia, show clinical and pathological overlaps; this hinders their specific and differential diagnosis. To date, biomarkers for each of these types of dementia have been investigated in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood. More recently, the field of biomarker search found a new opportunity to improve diagnosis in extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are released by cells including those of the central nervous system and these can be isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood. This review summarizes the current knowledge related to the search for dementia biomarkers in the field of EVs including studies of specific EV content, mainly proteins such as α-synuclein or tau and RNA species.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neurobiology of aging
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Membrane limited structures derived from cell membranes and cytoplasmic material, and released into EXTRACELLULAR SPACE. They circulate through the EXTRACELLULAR FLUID and through the peripheral blood in the MICROVASCULATURE where cells, much larger, cannot, thereby affecting a variety of intercellular communication processes.
Vesicles secreted from MULTIVESICULAR BODIES into the extracellular environment when the multivesicular bodies fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Multivesicular bodies are formed from ENDOSOMES when they accumulate vesicles (sometimes referred to as "intraluminal vesicles") from inward budding of the endosome membrane.
A factor associated with the well-being of living organisms that is used as a measure of environmental change and or influence. For example, aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in earthworm tissue is used as an indication of heavy metal pollution in soils. Distinguish from BIOMARKERS.
Endosomes containing intraluminal vesicles which are formed by the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) may fuse with other organelles such as LYSOSOMES or fuse back with the PLASMA MEMBRANE releasing their contents by EXOCYTOSIS. The MVB intraluminal vesicles released into the extracellular environment are known as EXOSOMES.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that may influence biological phenomena or represent quantifiable biomarkers. Biological factors are a variety of extracellular substances that are not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS
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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...
Parkinson's is a progressive neurological condition, affecting one person in every 500, 95% of which are over 40. It is caused by degeneration of more than 70% of the substantia nigra, which depletes the dopamine (the neurotransmitter involved in pro...