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Research examining the illicit online market for cybercrime services operating via web forums, such as malicious software, personal information, and hacking tools, has greatly improved our understanding of the practices of buyers and sellers, and the social forces that structure actor behavior. The majority of these studies are based on open markets, which can be accessed by anyone with minimal barriers to entry. There are, however, closed communities operating online that are thought to operate with greater trust and reliability between participants, as they must be vetted and approved by existing community members. The decision to allow individuals to join a forum may reflect restrictive deterrence practices on the part of existing members, as those applicants may threaten the security or operations of the group. This study utilized a quantitative analysis to understand the factors associated with rejection for individuals who sought membership in the organized and sophisticated closed forum run by and for cybercriminals called Darkode. The findings demonstrated that individuals whose perceived engagement with the hacker community and cybercrime marketplace were considered too risky for membership. The implications of this study for our understanding of restrictive deterrence theory, as well as criminal market operations on and offline were explored in depth.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology
To identify factors related to graft rejection following Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the Cornea Preservation Time Study (CPTS).
Although past research suggests that borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients' rejection hypersensitivity may be an important factor underlying these patients' interpersonal problems, the role o...
Recent studies suggest that similar injury mechanisms are in place across different solid organ transplants, resulting in the identification of a common rejection module (CRM), consisting of 11 genes ...
Heart transplantation is a relatively common treatment for end-stage heart failure. The major complication of heart transplantation is organ rejection. Epigenetic could play a role in the pathogenesis...
Chronic rejection of transplanted organs is a major obstacle in organ transplantation. The main symptoms of chronic rejection are vessel occlusion and tissue fibrosis. Macrophages play a crucial role ...
The use of topical Cyclosporine A early after an episode of endothelial graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty and continuing its administration for 6 months can reduce the course ...
Penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) is an open-sky surgery that fundamentally has not changed for more than 100 years. Because conventional PKP is associated with the potential for the developm...
Acute rejection is a common problem after a kidney transplant. Rejection can occur when the kidney recipient's immune system tries to attack (or reject) the new kidney. Rejection typicall...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, efficay and safety of a novel closed-loop (automated) vasopressor administration system that delivers norepinephrine using feedbac...
Every night during sleep, there is an accumulation of white blood cells in the closed eye. The closed eye white blood cells are predominantly neutrophils, but there is a small population (...
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.