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Ionic liquids (ILs) have been characterized as contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) that often resist biodegradation and impose toxicity upon environmental release. Sphingomonas sp. MKIV has been isolated as an extreme microorganism capable for biodegradation of major classes of ILs. Six imidazolium-, pyridinium- and ammonium-based ILs (pyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate [Py][CFSO], 1-(4-pyridyl)pyridinium chloride [1-4PPy][Cl], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [BMIM][Br], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate [BMIM][MeSO], tetrabutylammonium iodide [n-BuN][I] and tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate [n-BuN][PF]) were used for microbial growth. The strain achieved 91% and 87% removal efficiency for cultures supplemented with 100 mg L of [BMIM][MeSO] and [n-BuN][I] respectively. The metabolic activity of MKIV was inhibited following preliminary stages of cultures conducted using [BMIM][MeSO], [BMIM][Br], [Py][CFSO] and [n-BuN][PF], indicating potential accumulation of inhibitory metabolites. Thus, a comprehensive toxicological study of the six ILs on Aliivibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Raphidocelis subcapitata was conducted demonstrating that the compounds impose moderate and low toxicity. The end-products from [BMIM][MeSO] and [n-BuN][I] biodegradation were assessed using Aliivibrio fischeri, exhibiting increased environmental impact of the latter following biotreatment. MKIV produced 19.29 g L of biopolymer, comprising mainly glucose and galacturonic acid, from 25 g L of glucose indicating high industrial significance for bioremediation and exopolysaccharide production.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of hazardous materials
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A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)