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Staphylococcus epidermidis small colony variants can survive inside macrophages and their survival has been proposed as a pivotal process in the pathogenesis of biomaterial associated infections. In the present study the intracellular location of clinical isolates of SCV and parental wild type strains inside macrophages was determined. Furthermore, the effect of IFN-γ and rapamycin on the level of SCV/WT as well as lysosomes colocalisation and iNOS induction in THP-activated macrophages in response to WT and SCV strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis were examined. It was demonstrated that SCV strain of S. epidermidis can survive and persist inside macrophages and its intracellular survival is supported by the induction of phagosomal acidification. The ability to reduce the high proportion of LysoTracker positive SCV containing phagosomes was exclusively found when IFN-γ was used. The findings suggest that IFN-γ mediates SCV killing via two distinct mechanisms, phagosome alkalisation and an increased iNOS synthesis, so the cytokine may control S. epidermidis WT and SCV infection in macrophages. Staphylococcus epidermidis SCV is a less potent stimulus of iNOS than the WT strain and the feature may help SCV to persist in hostile environment of macrophages. Rapamycin treatment did not influence the iNOS synthesis but reduced the percentage of both bacterial strains within acidic organelles. However, the percentage of SCV within LysoTracker positive organelles, even though reduced comparing to non-primed cells, was higher than in the WT strain indicating that Staphylococcus epidermidis possesses unique metabolic features allowing SCV to survive within macrophages.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A COAGULASE-negative species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS found on the skin and MUCOUS MEMBRANE of warm-blooded animals. Similar to STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS and STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS, it is a nosocomial pathogen in NICU settings. Subspecies include generally antibiotic susceptible and BIOFILM negative capitis and antibiotic resistant and biofilm positive urealyticus isolates.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS similar to STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS, but containing different esterases. The subspecies Staphylococcus hominis novobiosepticus is highly virulent and novobiocin resistant.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
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