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Clinical, neuropsychological, and neurological procedures used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias were largely developed and validated in well-educated, non-Latino, English-speaking populations. Sociocultural and genetic differences in Latinos might influence the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of AD and other dementias. We aim to compare the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of AD and related dementias in Latinos with the corresponding neuropathological diagnosis. From the UCSD Alzheimer's Disease Research Center longitudinal cohort, we selected all Latino participants who had autopsy neuropathological studies from 1991 to 2017. Participants underwent annual neurological clinical evaluations, standard neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging, and genotyping of the Apolipoprotein E. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity for the clinical diagnosis of AD against the primary pathological diagnosis. From the 34 participants with a primary neuropathological diagnosis of AD, 33 (97.1%) were correctly clinically diagnosed as having AD at the last clinical evaluation, and 1 was incorrectly diagnosed with dementia with Lewy bodies. Of the 19 participants without a primary neuropathological diagnosis of AD, 8 were incorrectly clinically diagnosed with probable AD at the last clinic evaluation. The clinical diagnosis of AD at the last clinical evaluation had 97.1% sensitivity and 57.9% specificity against autopsy-verified AD. In this Latino cohort, clinicians predicted AD pathological findings with high sensitivity but moderate specificity. Tangle-only dementia was the most common misdiagnosis. Our study suggests that current procedures and instruments to clinically determine AD in Latinos have high sensitivity compared with neuropathology, but specificity needs to be improved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD
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A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe MENTAL RETARDATION. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Abnormal structures located chiefly in distal dendrites and, along with NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES and SENILE PLAQUES, constitute the three morphological hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. Neuropil threads are made up of straight and paired helical filaments which consist of abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated tau proteins. It has been suggested that the threads have a major role in the cognitive impairment seen in Alzheimer disease.
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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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