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Fluorescent nucleobase analogues (FBAs) have many desirable features in comparison to extrinsic fluorescent labels, but they are yet to find application in ultrasensitive detection. Many of the disadvantages of FBAs arise from their short excitation wavelengths (often in the ultraviolet), making two-photon excitation a potentially attractive approach. Pentacyclic adenine (pA) is a recently developed FBA that has an exceptionally high two-photon brightness. We have studied the two-photon-excited fluorescence properties of pA and how they are affected by incorporation in DNA. We find that pA is more photostable under two-photon excitation than via resonant absorption. When incorporated in an oligonucleotide, pA has a high two-photon cross section and emission quantum yield, varying with sequence context, resulting in the highest reported brightness for such a probe. The use of a two-photon microscope with ultrafast excitation and pulse shaping has allowed the detection of pA-containing oligonucleotides in solution with a limit of detection of ∼5 molecules, demonstrating that practical single-molecule detection of FBAs is now within reach.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP
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Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Use of a pulse of X-rays or fast electrons to generate free radicals for spectroscopic examination.
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Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
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