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Monopoles are intriguing topological objects, which play a central role in gauge theories and topological states of matter. While conventional monopoles are found in odd-dimensional flat spaces, such as the Dirac monopole in three dimensions and the non-Abelian Yang monopole in five dimensions, more exotic objects were predicted to exist in even dimensions. This is the case of "tensor monopoles," which are associated with tensor (Kalb-Ramond) gauge fields, and which can be defined in four-dimensional flat spaces. In this work, we investigate the possibility of creating and measuring such a tensor monopole in condensed-matter physics by introducing a realistic three-band model defined over a four-dimensional parameter space. Our probing method is based on the observation that the topological charge of this tensor monopole, which we relate to a generalized Berry curvature, can be directly extracted from the quantum metric. We propose a realistic three-level atomic system, where tensor monopoles could be generated and revealed through quantum-metric measurements.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physical review letters
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Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
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Truthful revealing of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's diagnosis or prognosis) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).