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Feed protein supplements are one of the most expensive and limiting feed ingredients. This review offers a comprehensive analysis of how the expected expansion of animal production, driven by the rising world population and living standards for more animal-sourced foods, is creating a global shortage of feed protein supply. Because ruminants, chickens, and pigs contribute to 96% of the global supply of animal protein and aquaculture is growing fast, means of meeting the feed protein requirements of these species are elaborated. Geographic variation and interdependence among China, Europe, and North America in the demand and supply of feed protein are compared. The potential and current state of exploration into alternative feed proteins, including microalgae, insects, single-cell proteins, and coproducts, are highlighted. Strategic innovations are proposed to upgrade feed protein processing and assessment, improve protein digestion by exogenous enzymes, and genetically select feed-efficient livestock breeds. An overall successful and sustainable solution in meeting global feed protein demands will lead to a substantial net gain of human-edible animal protein with a minimal environmental footprint. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Animal Biosciences Volume 7 is February 15, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annual review of animal biosciences
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The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
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