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Electronic cleansing (EC) is used for computational removal of residual feces and fluid tagged with an orally administered contrast agent on CT colonographic images to improve the visibility of polyps during virtual endoscopic "fly-through" reading. A recent trend in CT colonography is to perform a low-dose CT scanning protocol with the patient having undergone reduced- or noncathartic bowel preparation. Although several EC schemes exist, they have been developed for use with cathartic bowel preparation and high-radiation-dose CT, and thus, at a low dose with noncathartic bowel preparation, they tend to generate cleansing artifacts that distract and mislead readers. Deep learning can be used for improvement of the image quality with EC at CT colonography. Deep learning EC can produce substantially fewer cleansing artifacts at dual-energy than at single-energy CT colonography, because the dual-energy information can be used to identify relevant material in the colon more precisely than is possible with the single x-ray attenuation value. Because the number of annotated training images is limited at CT colonography, transfer learning can be used for appropriate training of deep learning algorithms. The purposes of this article are to review the causes of cleansing artifacts that distract and mislead readers in conventional EC schemes, to describe the applications of deep learning and dual-energy CT colonography to EC of the colon, and to demonstrate the improvements in image quality with EC and deep learning at single-energy and dual-energy CT colonography with noncathartic bowel preparation. RSNA, 2018.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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Asses the clinical performance of dual-energy CTC for the detection of larger polyps 1 cm or larger without cathartic preparation.
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Process in which individuals take the initiative, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying resources for learning, choosing and implementing learning strategies and evaluating learning outcomes (Knowles, 1975)
A method of producing a high-quality scan by digitizing and subtracting the images produced by high- and low-energy x-rays.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
Growth of organisms using AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES for obtaining nutrients and chemotrophic processes for obtaining a primary energy supply. Chemotrophic processes are involved in deriving a primary energy supply from exogenous chemical sources. Chemotrophic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) generally use inorganic chemicals as energy sources and as such are called chemolithoautotrophs. Most chemoautotrophs live in hostile environments, such as deep sea vents. They are mostly BACTERIA and ARCHAEA, and are the primary producers for those ecosystems.
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