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Outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 viruses have spurred an unprecedented research effort to develop antivirals and vaccines against influenza. Standardized methods for vaccine evaluation are critical for facilitating vaccine development. Compared with hemagglutination inhibition assays, mounting evidence suggest that microneutralization tests (MNTs) is a better choice for the evaluation of candidate pandemic influenza vaccines because they measure neutralizing antibody activity in cell cultures and are more sensitive in detecting H5 and H7. Here, we report a MNT measuring neuraminidase activity as the read-out (NA-MNT) for quantitative analysis of neutralizing antibodies against avian influenza viruses. Compared to the conventional microneutralization assay (ELISA-MNT), the NA-MNT is faster with lower intra- and inter-assay variations, while no difference in geometric mean titers was found between these two assays for the evaluation of H5N1 and H7N9 vaccines. These results suggest that NA-MNT is a reliable and high throughput method which could facilitate the development of candidate pandemic influenza vaccine.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY REACTIONS, serologic cross-reactivity, DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY reactions, IMMUNIZATION, or heterogenetic responses.
A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity. This can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample. ...
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
Influenza or 'flu' is a respiratory illness associated with infection by influenza virus. Symptoms frequently include headache, fever, cough, sore throat, aching muscles and joints. There is a wide spectrum of severity of illness ranging from min...