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Aflatoxin B (AFB) is a secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus and other fungi. Soil, crops, food, feed, etc. were susceptible to aflatoxin B contamination, which caused adverse economic and health consequences. It is necessary to search for microorganisms or microbial enzymes that can degrade AFB. The degradation activity of AFB by cell-free supernatant (68.30%) of isolate Pantoea sp. T6 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than viable bacterial cells (4.87%) and intracellular cell extracts (3.68%). The supernatant's AFB degradation activity was reduced from 68.30% to 5.33% in treatment with protease K and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). An extracellular enzyme from the supernatant was secreted by Pantoea sp. T6 and was named as Pantoea aflatoxin degradation enzyme (PADE), which was obtained using Diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)-Sepharose chromatography. PADE was further purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The PADE, outer membrane protein A, was identified by mass spectrometry and molecular mass was 38180.1Da. The optimum temperature and pH for the reaction of PADE with AFB were 40 °C and 7.0, respectively. These finding showing that the PADE, which was isolated from the supernatant of Pantoea sp. T6, has the ability to degrade AFB, and may have potential application for aflatoxin B reduction in the food and feed industry.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).
Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 126.96.36.199.
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Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...