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Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms distributed globally in aquatic and terrestrial environments. They are also industrially cultivated to be used as dietary supplements, as they have a high nutritional value; however, they are also known to produce a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites, called cyanotoxins. BMAA (β-methylamino-l-alanine) and its most common structural isomers, DAB (2,4-diaminobutyric acid) and AEG (N-2-aminoethylglycine) produced by cyanobacteria, are non-proteinogenic amino acids that have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. A possible route of exposure to those amino acids is through consumption of food supplements based on cyanobacteria. The review critically discusses existing reports regarding the occurrence of BMAA, DAB and AEG in cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria-based food supplements. It is shown that inconsistencies in reported results could be attributed to performance of different methods of extraction and analysis applied and in ambiguities regarding determination of soluble and bound fractions of the compounds. The critical aspect of this review aims to grow awareness of human intake of neurotoxic amino acids, while results presented in literature concerning dietary supplements aim to promote further research, quality control as well as development of guidelines for cyanotoxins in food products.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of hazardous materials
Cyanobacteria are mainly known to incorporate inorganic molecules like carbon dioxide and ammonia from the environment into organic material within the cell. Nevertheless cyanobacteria do import and e...
A simple one-pot method for the synthesis of isomeric pyrrolo[1,2- x][1,4]diazepinones in reasonable yields was developed. The method is based on the condensation of readily available N-Boc amino acid...
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green (micro)algae, are able to sustain many types of chemical stress because of metabolic adaptations that allow them to survive and successfully compete in a variet...
Cycad-associated neurodegenerative disease is more strongly correlated with the gymnosperm's major neurotoxin cycasin (methylazoxymethanol glucoside) than with the minor neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-...
Cyanobacteria are one of the target groups of organisms explored for production of free fatty acids (FFAs) as biofuel precursors. Experimental evaluation of cyanobacterial potential for FFA production...
This study will evaluate the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) ratio in the medical foods formulated for Methylmalonic and Propionic Acidemias (MMA/PROP) patients. We will recruit 6 health...
This protocol seeks to define aspects of intestinal and hepatic uptake and metabolism of several amino acids. The major hypothesis to be tested is that the splanchic bed (intestine and li...
To analyze the relationship of dietary variables to urinary excretion of amino acids and the relationships of specific urinary amino acids to blood pressure.
Protein requirements in individuals who participate in endurance-based exercise training have been suggested to be greater than the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA). The biolog...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether Branched chain Amino Acids enhances the uptake of ammonia in muscle tissue.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A form-genus of planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales.
Amino acids and chains of amino acids connected by peptide linkages.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...