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Electron tomography (ET) approaches are based on the imaging of a biological specimen at different tilt angles by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ET can be applied to both plastic-embedded and frozen samples. Technological advancements in TEM, direct electron detection, automated image collection, and imaging processing algorithms allow for 2-7-nm scale axial resolution in tomographic reconstructions of cells and organelles. In this review, we discussed the application of ET in plant cell biology and new opportunities for imaging plant cells by cryo-ET and other 3D electron microscopy approaches.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Microscopy (Oxford, England)
High-resolution imaging of hair-cell stereocilia of the inner ear has contributed substantially to our understanding of auditory and vestibular function. To provide three-dimensional views of the stru...
In multicellular eukaryotic cells, metabolism and growth are sustained by the cooperative functioning of organelles in combination with cell-to-cell communication at the organism level. In land plants...
Recent findings call for the critical overview of some incorrectly used plant cell and tissue culture terminology such as dedifferentiation, callus, totipotency, and somatic embryogenesis. Plant cell ...
Coat proteins mediate vesicular transport between intracellular compartments, which is essential for the distribution of molecules within the eukaryotic cell. The global arrangement of coat proteins o...
The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure that mediates cell and organ morphogenesis and provides structural support to the whole plant body. The primary load bearing components of the cell wall are ...
The purpose of this study is to understand how weight loss by a very low fat plant-based diet with an exercise program affects metabolic and cardiovascular health in overweight adults at h...
Plant stanols are known to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, studies have suggested that these compounds also influence the immune system. Asthmatic responses are predomi...
This study aims to explore whether the increased supply of dietary plant sterols and plant stanols have any influence on serum levels of phytosterols and on consistency of carotid atheroma...
Gaucher disease, the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by mutations in the human glucocerebrosidase gene (GCD) leading to reduced activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucoc...
The aim is to investigate the effects of yoghurt drinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately h...
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...