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Although human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) plays a prognostic and predictive role in breast and gastric cancer, its function in bladder cancer (BC) is still controversial. A comprehensive review of the literature has been carried out. An electronic search of databases from PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar was implemented. The search terms were: "BC," "bladder carcinoma," "bladder neoplasm," "human epidermal growth factor 2," "HER2," "HER-2," "c-erbB-2," "c-erbB2," "erbB-2," "erbB2," "neu," "marker," "biomarker," and "prognosis". Results of the review consented to (a) summarize the available data on HER2 a predictor of recurrence and/or progression free survival on univariate and multivariate analysis, (b) explore the related issues in assessing HER2 status on these tumor samples, since they may severely impair its predictive function, and (c) report the state-of-the art of HER2 as a putative therapeutic target in BC and especially non-muscle invasive BC. HER2 stands out for being a prognostic factor as well as a therapeutic target in various cancers. Data from the literature concerning its use in BC provide conflicting results, probably due to the inherent complexity of BC biology. Efforts should be made to establish a suitable tumor-specific scoring system, and to assess single drugs' efficacy in well-designed clinical trials.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Urologia internationalis
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression levels in Cellprep® (CP).
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Preoperative discrimination between nonmuscle-invasive bladder carcinomas (NMIBC) and the muscle-invasive ones (MIBC) is very crucial in the management of patients with bladder cancer (BC).
To identify interactions of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the pro-resolving mediator receptors for RvD1 and RvE1 to stimulate an increase in intracellular [Ca] ([Ca]) and mucin secr...
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A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA, amphiregulin, and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in APERT SYNDROME.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUREGULINS. It has extensive homology to and can heterodimerize with the EGF Receptor (RECEPTOR, EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR) and the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2). Overexpression of the erbB-3 receptor is associated with tumorigenesis.
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