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Adenosine is a well-characterized endogenous anticonvulsant and seizure terminator of the brain. Through a combination of adenosine receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms, adenosine affects seizure generation (ictogenesis), as well as the development of epilepsy and its progression (epileptogenesis). Maladaptive changes in adenosine metabolism, in particular increased expression of the astroglial enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK), play a major role in epileptogenesis. Increased expression of ADK has dual roles in both reducing the inhibitory tone of adenosine in the brain, which consequently reduces the threshold for seizure generation, and also driving an increased flux of methyl-groups through the transmethylation pathway, thereby increasing global DNA methylation. Through these mechanisms, adenosine is uniquely positioned to link metabolism with epigenetic outcome. Therapeutic adenosine augmentation therefore not only holds promise for the suppression of seizures in epilepsy, but moreover the prevention of epilepsy and its progression overall. This review will focus on adenosine-related mechanisms implicated in ictogenesis and epileptogenesis and will discuss therapeutic opportunities and challenges.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain research bulletin
Epilepsy includes a group of disorders of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Although familial epilepsy has a genetic component and heritability, the...
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The purpose of this study is to extend previous observations in animal models regarding the effects of adenosine in the release of cytokines to human subjects. We intend to accomplish this...
This study investigates the significance of adenosine and A2A receptors in human brown adipose tissue (BAT) in vivo. Using positron emission tomography (PET), perfusion and the density of ...
The first aim of this study are to evaluate the lobar concordance of FDG-PET and MEG with intracranial electrographic study in children with intractable partial epilepsy. The second aim is...
The aim of this study is to show whether rosuvastatin influences adenosine metabolism. Therefore we will determine whether rosuvasatin increases dipyridamole-induced vasodilation by increa...
A nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 220.127.116.11.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
Epilepsy is defined as a disorder of brain function characterized by recurrent seizures that have a sudden onset. (Oxford Medical Dictionary). A seizure is caused by a sudden burst of excess electrical activity in the brain, causing a tempora...
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...