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A critical question in neurology is how the brain reorganizes its structure and function following injury. Here, we consider oculomotor control following a massive brain lesion, a hemispherectomy. We used the oblique anti-saccade task which requires the suppression of a saccade towards a visual cue, flashed anywhere in a patient's seeing hemifield, and the generation, in the dark, of an anti-saccade to a task-dependent location in the opposite blind hemifield; inverting either the horizontal or both horizontal and vertical components. Anti-saccades require a visuo-motor vector inversion that normally involves bilateral interactions between frontal, parietal and subcortical structures across both hemispheres. Here, oblique anti-saccades presented a major challenge to the patient's single hemisphere, requiring one site in visual cortex to communicate with an instruction-dependent site in oculomotor cortex. Patients with discrete frontal lobe damage can be strongly impaired in anti-saccades. By contrast, hemispherectomy patients performed oblique anti-saccades normally, contrasting with their permanent contralesional hemianopia and severe hemiparesis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior
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INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)
A collection of nuclei in the midbrain tegmentum for the OCULOMOTOR NERVE fibers.
Nucleus in the oculomotor nuclear complex associated with oculomotor activities and stress adaptation.
A syndrome associated with injury to the lateral half of the spinal cord. The condition is characterized by the following clinical features (which are found below the level of the lesion): contralateral hemisensory anesthesia to pain and temperature, ipsilateral loss of propioception, and ipsilateral motor paralysis. Tactile sensation is generally spared. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p162).
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...