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Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become an important therapeutic option for several diseases. Since several mAbs have shown promising efficacy in clinic, the competition to develop mAbs has become severe. In efforts to gain a competitive advantage over other mAbs and provide significant benefits to patients, innovations in antibody engineering have aimed at improving the pharmacokinetic properties of mAbs. Because engineering can provide therapeutics that are more convenient, safer, and more efficacious for patients in several disease areas, it is an attractive approach to provide significant benefits to patients. Further advances in engineering mAbs to modulate their pharmacokinetics were driven by the increase of total soluble target antigen concentration that is often observed after injecting a mAb, which then requires a high dosage to antagonize. To decrease the required dosage, several antibody engineering techniques have been invented that reduce the total concentration of soluble target antigen. Here, we review the various ways that antibody engineering can improve the pharmacokinetic properties of mAbs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics
The design and development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies through optimizing their pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties is crucial to improve efficacy while minimizing advers...
Due mainly to their high level of affinity and specificity, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been frequently selected as treatment for cancer, autoimmune or chronic inflammatory diseases....
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Serologic assay that detects antibodies to Treponema pallidum, the etiologic agent of syphilis. After diluting the patient's serum to remove non-specific antibodies, the serum is mixed on a glass slide with Nichol's strain of Treponema pallidum. An antigen-antibody reaction occurs if the test is positive and the bound antibodies are detected with fluoresceinated antihuman gamma-globulin antibody.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
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Monoclonal antibodies MAbs
Monoclonal antibodies recognise and attach to specific proteins produced by cells. Types of monoclonal antibodies used to treat cancer cells: Block cell dividing dividing signals Transport cancer drugs or radiation to cancer cells Tr...